1.7Enhancing a Document
In the first sections of this chapter, you learned how to develop and edit a Word document. In this section, you will learn more techniques to work with your document. We will first discuss making lists of items. The next major topic in this section is how to insert and manage images and pictures in your documents. Finally, we will discuss a special kind of object—a text box—that can be used to emphasize text.
Bulleted and Numbered Lists
When writing a document, it is often desirable to make a list of items. This might be as simple as a two-word list. Other times, it may be necessary to have a more complex list that is made up of phrases. In addition, each item in the list may have subitems; in other words, there may be a sublist within a single list item. In some situations, the list is simply an unordered list, and simple bullets can be used to denote each item. In other cases, specific steps or sequences may be listed, and it is important to list them by number. Numbered lists may also require sublists, which are also numbered, for each particular item. Sometimes it is even necessary to have an item that requires several paragraphs to explain and then pick the numbered list back up, with the next sequential number, for additional items in the list. All of these features are available within the list features of Word. We will first discuss bulleted lists and then turn to numbered lists.
A simple list can be created in two ways. One technique is simply to position the cursor on a blank line, click the “Bullets” icon, and start typing. Every time the Enter key is pressed, a new list item is created. The listed items are preceded by a bullet and indented at the first tab stop. To end the list, press either the Delete key or the Backspace key. The Delete key immediately returns the cursor to a new paragraph position. The Backspace key is more complex: one press stops the list, a second press positions a new paragraph, and a third press removes the tab position.
Another way to create a list is to type several paragraphs, highlight the paragraphs, then click the “Bullets” menu icon. Each paragraph then becomes a bulleted item in the list.
To make subitems or sublists within a bulleted item, press the Tab key on a bulleted item. Since bulleted items are always indented a tab stop, by indenting a bullet to the next tab stop, it automatically becomes a subitem. As you type subitems, you can return to a higher level by pressing the Shift+Tab key combination.
Figure 1.42 illustrates both the menu items for the “Bullets” icon and an example of a multilevel bullet list.
Notice that the subitems use a different bullet image. The drop-down at the far right shows the sequence of bullet images that are used for sublists. You can also choose which icons you want to use for each level, or you can even define your own bullet graphic and use it.
Numbered lists are created in a similar way to bulleted lists. The major difference is that the listed items are numbered instead of bulleted. Normally, each new paragraph is numbered; however, as mentioned earlier, it may be necessary to use several paragraphs for a single numbered item. As you build the list and create new paragraphs, each paragraph will receive a number. To remove a number from a paragraph, position the cursor on the paragraph and click the “Numbering” icon in the ribbon. Clicking that icon will remove the number from that paragraph. The “Numbering” icon toggles between listed and not listed. Since later paragraphs may be part of the sequence, Word provides the capability to set a specific number on a paragraph. Figure 1.43 illustrates a numbered list.
It is also possible to create sublists within each numbered item. There are two techniques available. The first technique is the same as with bulleted lists: simply press the Tab key on the paragraphs that are to be sublists. Word also has a menu icon on the ribbon that allows more options on multilevel numbered lists. Either outline numbering notation can be used, or decimal notation, such as 1.1.1., can be used, as shown in Figure 1.43.
Adding Pictures and Images to a Document
Adding a picture to a document is a straightforward task. However, once the picture has been added, there are other issues to address, and that task can be a little more complicated. Such issues as the size, the alignment, positioning, anchor point, text wrapping, and picture captions all add some complexity when it is desirable to add pictures or graphics. This text has many screen capture images that have been added as graphics. You will also probably have many occasions to add graphics to your documents.
Inserting a Picture
Basically, there are two ways to add an image to a document. If you are adding an image from another document or a screen capture, you can simply copy and paste it. First, copy it from your other document or application; second, place the cursor at the desired insertion point and then paste the graphic.
The second way is to insert the graphic from a file. On the “Insert” ribbon, there are the following icons used to insert corresponding objects: “Pictures,” “Online Pictures,” “Shapes,” “SmartArt,” “Chart,” and “Screenshot.” These types of graphics all have many of the same features, including the ability to change the size, choose the alignment, set text wrapping, and so forth.
To insert a picture, simply click the “Picture” icon on the “Insert” ribbon. A dialog box with the folders and files on the computer will be displayed. Find the correct image, select it, and click “Insert.” It is added to your document at the insertion point. To add a different type of graphic, such as an online image or screenshot, the appropriate dialog box or tool will display to allow you to find the desired graphic and add it.
If the image is too large to fit on the page, then it automatically goes to the top of a new page. Sometimes this is acceptable, but sometimes you will have to reposition or resize the image.
Use caution when searching for and saving images from the internet. Many images are copyright protected and cannot be used for commercial purposes. Always check the copyright before using an image you don’t own.
Image "Format" Ribbon
When you first insert an image, a new tab and ribbon appear. This “Format” tab contains several menu icons that can be used to manipulate the image. We will discuss a few, but you should take time to try all the icons. Word has a rich set of image-manipulating tools.
The icons in the “Adjust” group and the “Picture Styles” group are used to edit the picture itself. With those icons you can add many different types of artistic effects, including coloring; removing background colors; adding borders, shadows, and other styles; adjusting contrast; recoloring; and many other special effects. Since this text is focused on Word rather than on editing images, we will not discuss all those tools. It is suggested, however, that you spend some time learning about the picture editing capabilities provided in Word.
On the right half of the ribbon are icons to control how the image is positioned and how it relates to the text itself. These are an important aspect of using Word, and we will discuss them below. Also note that many of these features can be accessed either through the menu icon on the ribbon or by right-clicking the image. Right-clicking often brings up menu items similar to the ones on the ribbon.
Sizing an Image
One of the first decisions you make is to set the size of the image. Word attempts to size the image appropriately so that it fits on the page. In fact, it always resizes it so that it fits within the margins of the page. When an image is selected, or highlighted, it has selection handlesaround the image. To resize the image, simply grab one of the handles by positioning the mouse pointer until it changes to a double arrow, then drag the handle inward or outward to resize. Note that it is possible to resize horizontally and vertically independently, or resize from the corner, changing the height and width at the same time. The aspect ratio is maintained only when resizing from a corner.
On the far right of the “Format” ribbon is a “Size” group of icons and text boxes. The “Height” and “Width” text boxes can also be used to resize the image. Note that the aspect ratio is set to automatically maintain itself. If you want to disconnect the height and width (in other words, change the aspect ratio), you can open up the “Layout” dialog box by clicking on the small arrow in the bottom-right corner of the “Size” group. Figure 1.45 illustrates the “Layout” dialog box with the “Size” tab selected.
In the “Size” group of the “Format” ribbon, there is also a menu icon to allow you to crop the picture. This is another technique that can be used to resize a picture, especially one that is too large and that has extraneous material that may not be needed. Click the “Crop” icon once to place cropping bars on the image, which can be dragged to select the area to be saved. Once the area has been chosen, click on the “Crop” icon again to crop the picture.
Deleting a Graphic
Deleting a picture or graphic is exactly the same as deleting text. You select what you want to delete and use the Delete key. Remember, the picture or graphic will only display the sizing handles when the object is selected.
Anchors, Positioning, and Text Wrapping
Pictures are either in-line or floating in a Word document. When you first insert a picture, it is placed in-line. An in-line picture is placed in the document at the insertion point and acts just like another piece of text. If you insert a picture on a blank line, it has the characteristics of a paragraph.
You can indent the picture or align it on left, right, or center. If you insert it in the middle of a paragraph, it is treated as other text in the paragraph. It moves forward if you type behind it. It adjusts itself as the paragraph is indented or aligned. But you cannot drag it to reposition it.
If you want to reposition the picture or wrap text around it, then you must change it from in-line to floating. You change a picture to floating by first selecting it and then clicking on the layout icon that appears next to the picture. Figure 1.46 shows a picture with the icon and the corresponding drop-down that displays when you click on it.
Use the ribbon icons or the right-click shortcuts to adjust the image settings.
Figure 1.46 shows that this picture has the characteristic of “In Line with Text.” To change it to be a floating picture, click on one of the wrapping choices in the “With Text Wrapping” group. The six choices for text wrapping, from top left to bottom right, are as follows:
Wrap text, but with square boundaries
Wrap text, tight but with inside areas open
Wrap text tightly around image
Type text before and after, no wrapping (similar to in-line, but with more flexibility to move the image)
Type text on top of image
Place image on top of text
When an image is floating, it can be positioned on the page by using drag and drop. Even if the text wrapping option is before and after, the image can be repositioned up and down the page. When the image is floating, it also has an anchor.
The anchor appears on a floating image when it is selected or in focus. (If the anchor does not appear, go to the backstage, choose “File” -> “Options” -> “Display,” and make sure the check box for “Anchors” is checked.)
Figure 1.48 displays two other options that allow you to set the anchor point. A picture can be anchored either to a paragraph (“Move with text”) or to the page (“Fix position on page”). If a picture is anchored to a paragraph, the picture will move up or down on the page as the paragraph moves when text is added or deleted. If a picture is anchored to the page, it will remain at the same location on the page, and the text will move around it. Moving the image manually also moves the anchor point.
The “See more…” option opens up the “Layout” box that is shown in Figure 1.47, which also allows detailed control of the image’s position, text wrapping, and size. Figure 1.47 shows the “Layout” dialog box with the “Position” and “Text Wrapping” tabs open. Notice the settings and values in the fields.
Figure 1.48 illustrates an image that is floating, that has an anchor point on the paragraph, that has square text wrapping, and that has been positioned (with drag and drop) in the middle of the page.
Shapes and Text Boxes
On the “Insert” ribbon in the “Illustrations” group is an icon labeled “Shapes.” Figure 1.49 illustrates all the types of shapes that can be inserted in a document. When you click on one of the icons in the drop-down, your mouse pointer will be displayed with crosshairs that can be used to draw the shape to the size that you desire. Note that the shape you draw is an image object, so it has all the characteristics that were just explained above.
When you draw a shape in a document, Word makes it a floating graphic with a wrap text style of “In Front of Text.” The text wrap setting can be changed so that the text wraps around the graphic. A “Format” ribbon also appears, but it is slightly different from the other “Format” ribbon we saw earlier. This “Format” ribbon has tools to format the shape, such as changing the fill color or typing text on the shape.
Sometimes when you are creating a document, you may have some critically important text that you want to emphasize—something like a tip or a special note. One effective way to do this is to separate it from the rest of the text and put it in a text box. A text box is a graphical object, so it has all the characteristics that were just described for shapes and images. However, the text box contains its own minidocument within its boundaries. This minidocument is primarily text but can also contain images.
The icon to draw a text box can be found in the “Shapes” drop-down menu under the “Basic Shapes” heading, as seen in Figure 1.49. It can also be found on the “Insert” ribbon under the “Text” group of icons. Figure 1.51 illustrates a text box with some text and an image inserted. When typing within the text box, the insertion point is inside the box. A picture can also be inserted at that insertion point.
Word also contains predefined text boxes that include special effects and colors. The “Text Box” icon, on the “Insert” ribbon in the “Text” group, not only allows you to draw a text box but also contains icons to use fancy predefined text boxes. These boxes have coloring, titles, and specific sizes and locations. For example, the sidebar boxes have default characteristics so that they are positioned along the right margin, have a height of a full page, and have square text wrapping. Other predefined boxes have different settings. Figure 1.52 illustrates the “Banded Quote” predefined text box. Notice that this text box has another text box embedded inside for the title.
If you need to delete a text box, click on the border in order to select it, then press the Delete key.
On a flyer or report, you may want to emphasize something in your document without creating a separate graphical text box. Word also has several different types of borders that can be added. A paragraph border is simply a border around a paragraph that is in line with the rest of the text. A page border is a design element that can apply to the entire document or to a particular page in a document. Both types of borders can be simple lines or fancy designs.
To add a paragraph border, the border icon on the “Home” ribbon in the “Paragraph” group can be used. Figure 1.53 shows the various types of paragraph borders that can be used, either full borders or left, right, top, or bottom borders.
The “Page Background” group in the “Design” ribbon also has menu icons to make your pages more elaborate. The “Page Borders” icon opens up a “Borders and Shading” dialog box. Even though the name of the icon is “Page Borders,” it has tabs to apply borders and shading both to full pages and to individual paragraphs. Figure 1.54 illustrates this dialog box with the “Page Border” tab open. The figure also illustrates that the borders can be fancy lines or even artistic graphics. The border can apply to the entire document or to only specific sections within the document.
Adding Page Color
Next to the “Page Border” option on the “Design” ribbon is the “Page Color” option. This option allows you to add color to the whole document. Using “Page Color” will add a solid color to the background of a page. Figure 1.55 shows the drop-down of the standard colors that are available.
When deciding on the page color, consider the font color used in the document. Choosing a dark page color and a dark font color may make the document difficult to read. If you choose a dark page color, change the font to a lighter color.
Keep in mind that most printers will not print the page color. You should use this option to see how your document will look when printed on color paper. Adjusting the font color for a dark background and then printing on white paper may make your text unreadable.
Previewing and Printing the Document
Before sending a document to the printer, you should always preview how the document will look based on the settings of the selected printer. To preview the document, select “File,” then “Print.” The preview window displays the current page of the document. If the document has multiple pages, you can use the page selection arrows at the bottom of the preview window to move to the other pages. Figure 1.57 illustrates the preview you will see on the “Print” page.