# 1.1 Absolute Cell References

Absolute cell references are used when the user wants to copy a formula, but keep one or more of the references used in the formula fixed on a particular cell. For example, assume a store clerk is recording the numbeer of items sold of each color they offer. In addition to the number sold, the clerk wants to calculate the percentage of the total for each color. The clerk can use an absolute cell reference in the formula to simplify the copying and pasting of the formula from cell C3 down to the other cells in column C. Notice the dollar signs before the B and the 8 in the formula in cell C3. These dollar signs create an absolute cell reference, causing the copied formula to always refer to cell B8 rather than move to a different cell when the formula is copied to a new cell. Without this absolute reference (i.e., if you removed the dollar signs) the formula would reference cell B9 when it was copied from C3 to C4, and so forth.

Absolute cell references can be created by manually typing the dollar sign before the letter and number, or by hitting the F4 key while the cell that should be kept static (cell B8 in this example) is selected. Notice in the example that the reference to cell B3 in the formula is not an absolute cell reference. Because of this, the numerator of the formula will move along with the new location of the formula, but the denominator will stay constant due to the absolute cell reference. Thus, when the formula is copied to cell C4, the formula will update so B4 is the numerator, and B8 is still the denominator.